Most patients were able to discontinue antihypertensive drugs, but many required ongoing medications for some time. In primary care settings, it may be difficult to treat hypertension among adults who are overweight, obese, have high blood pressure, or who are elderly.
Hypertension cannot be cured. The medication will not reduce the blood pressure to normal levels even if treatment is successful. The patient cannot be cured.
One in five people in the United States have hypertension, as defined by the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology and the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence. In the United States, an estimated $36.7 billion was spent in 2002 on antihypertensive drugs alone.\n
There are many signs of hypertension in adults, such as: shortness of breath, leg swelling, lightheadedness, blurred vision and feeling tired. There may also be more long term complications of hypertension such as coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial disease.
Nearly one fifth of U.S. adults (22.3 million) get hypertension. And about a quarter of those who get it develop chronic hypertension, and the average age at onset is 55 years.
Most cases of hypertension are caused by excess salt, nicotine and alcohol intake in combination with an increase in peripheral resistance of arteries due to atherosclerosis and diabetes. In contrast, chronic psychological stress may play an important role in generating hypertension, especially in female tobacco smokers. This is likely due to psychological stress-induced alterations of the central nervous system and endocrine system in smokers who tend to develop hypertension. In the long term, psychological stress may induce alterations in the sympathetic nervous system, so that the sympathetic nervous system is unable to reduce blood pressure. In the short term, the effects of psychological stress can aggravate a high blood pressure crisis, often due to severe mental stress. The association of anxiety and mental stress with hypertension requires further investigation.
When comparing the results, no significant relationship was found between the different factors of the primary cause of hypertension like blood pressure, kidney function, and the type of the first symptoms. A significant relationship was however, found between hyperlipidemia and hypertension.
Recent advances in hypertensive research are largely directed towards two goals: 1) the development or refinement of safe, long-acting agents that will lower blood pressure or eliminate it altogether; and 2) increased knowledge of the pathophysiology of hypertension through enhanced animal diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The most widely used therapies for the treatment of hypertension today are ACE inhibitors and β-AR blockers. Several factors must be considered in deciding which agent(s) should be utilized: drug availability, adverse reaction profiles, and patient tolerability; costs; potential side effects; compliance; and the need for treatment modification based on dynamic changes in hypertension.
Over 75% of those affected by hypertension in Singapore are diagnosed in their 40s and 50s. The first onset of hypertension is not associated with advancing age and a number of risk factors are independent of age at diagnosis. Smoking and family history of hypertension are strong risk factors while obesity was found to be moderately associated. Other salient characteristics of younger hypertensive patients include the presence of retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy at lesser degrees as well as high insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia that may be related to a combination of both, with more extensive risk factor involvement in the later two.
Amlodipine is one of the most used lipid-sensitive calcium-channel blockers in the USA. Amlodipine has the unique characteristic of its dihydrochloride salt (Lipitor) not being a sympathomimetic drug. Amlodipine has been shown in randomized controlled clinical settings to have comparable or better therapeutic effects with less adverse effects than the dihydrochlorinated β antagonists.
There are four groups of patients, namely: 1) patients who already self-treat, 2) patients who seek treatment but not yet self-treat, 3) those who are 'treatment intolerant', and those who do not want medical treatment. The first group of patients is willing to be 'treated without restriction'. The second group shows a significant interest in the treatment. But the third group shows no interest in treatment. And, finally, the 'treatment intolerant' group is almost nonexistent.
For the first time ever, amlodipine will be available in the US under the brand name of Omnicefy®. This new, patented tablet is based on a novel formulation technology developed by Oasis Therapeutics and combines enhanced bioavailability and extended duration of efficacy with the convenience of once-daily sublingual administration. Omnicefy® is designed to be taken at home to facilitate self-management and is intended to boost the number of patients who can achieve targets for blood pressure control from traditional medications. Oasis Therapeutics anticipates initiating the Omnicefy® product registration (U. S. registration) in the first quarter of 2007. Please visit www.omnicefy.