The most common side effects were nausea (37.9%) and fatigue (27.4%). There was also an increase in hematologic abnormalities (21.3%), including neutropenia (8.7%) and thrombocytopenia (7.8%), as well as diarrhea (5.3%) and weight loss (5.0%). These side effects occurred at higher rates than those observed in patients treated with sorafenib in two famous phase 3 clinical trials (NCT00709071 and NCT00479539), suggesting that the combination of sorafenib with VK-2019 offers a unique therapeutic benefit in terms of antitumor activity and tolerability.
The authors conclude that NPC is an aggressive neoplasm with high metastatic potential including cerebral metastasis. Close follow up seems necessary even after curative therapy.
The high response rate observed In a recent study suggests that Vk-2019 could be combined with other therapies given the favourable nature of Vk-2019's pharmacological properties. However, further studies will be required to explore this possibility.
The addition of antiviral therapy to cisplatin-based chemotherapy improved PFS and OS of NPC patients, especially those with microsphere-constructed tumors, compared to cisplatin monotherapy. Various mechanisms are likely involved in this improvement, including inhibition of virus replication and induction of tumor cell apoptosis.
In spite of recent advances in diagnosis and treatment, NPC remains a devastating disease with a dismal prognosis. For patients diagnosed before the onset of any symptoms, an overall 5-year survival rate of 85% was observed. The poor outcome of NPC is largely attributable to the late presentation of the disease, often resulting in regional or distant metastasis. The presence of lymph node metastasis independently predicts a worse prognosis. The current therapeutic modalities include surgery alone, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapies. More studies are needed to better understand the biological behavior of NPC and develop novel effective therapies.
Results from a recent clinical trial shows that 1,100 people were diagnosed with NPC annually in the US in 1986. The age at diagnosis was 70.5 years (6 months after the average age of diagnosis for all head and neck cancers reported in the same study). These data suggest that NPC is rare but that its incidence may be increasing over time.
The key symptom was dysphagia (difficulty swallowing). Other symptoms included headache, malaise, skin changes, or weight loss. Data from a recent study suggest that screening for nasopharyngeal carcinoma is worthwhile.
There are two U. S. national population-based cancer incidence databases that contain information on the age at diagnosis of NPC. These databases are the National Cancer Institute SEER database and the American Community Survey. These data suggest that the average age of people diagnosed with NPC has decreased in the past 30 years. However, there is some variation according to race/ethnicity. Furthermore, this decrease appears to be more pronounced among African Americans than whites.
Researchers in the field of oncology are researching various methods of brain tumor therapy by using new technologies such as gene therapy that target Vk-2019. The future clinical application of this technology will be advantageous in terms of adhering to the ethical principles of personalized medicine.
The majority of patients with NPC are affected by tumor stage, age, and other relevant prognostic factors, although localization is still one of the most relevant independent prognostic factor. Compared to other head and neck cancers, NPC has been treated less highly. Even though the overall survival of patients with NPC is not significantly different from other head and neck cancers, the quality of life for patients with NPC is worse than other head and neck cancers and also inferior to a control group without any head and neck cancer, particularly when considering the impact of radiation therapy on QOL. In addition, this study indicates that the presence of comorbidities and concurrent treatment are associated with poor outcomes. Consequently, appropriate referral and treatment should be considered in the management of NPC.