The cure rate for primary and locally advanced tumours is around 90%, with good outcomes for most patients. However, in stage four (localised) disease, curative strategies remain limited and surgical treatment may be inadequate in some patients, with poor prognosis. A cure rate of 95% in advanced disease is achievable.
The exact cause is unknown, but many risk factors with moderate confidence can be identified, including H. pylori infection, NSAID, diet, and coffee consumption. Other risk factors are likely to be identified in the future.
Treatment of early-stage [colorectal cancer](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/colorectal-cancer) is similar to treatment of colon cancer in general. Chemotherapy is frequently employed, followed by resection, which, if applicable, includes curative intent. Staging of rectal cancer is similar to colon cancer, and there may be a role of chemotherapy in a select group of patients.
The most common type of colorectal cancer is adenocarcinoma, in which the normal cells are replaced by a glandular form of cells. Other types include mucinous tumours, which are related to the appendix; and squamous cell carcinoma, which is associated with colonisation by Chlamydia trachomatis or with the use of certain drugs. A colorectal cancer tumour can be identified by screening, by checking the stool for blood, or by obtaining a biopsy.
Approximately 7500 people are diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 4000 per year die from the disease. There are 30000 new cases of colorectal cancer in the United States each year.
Vaccination with kras peptide vaccine was safe and induced a transient antibody response in 90% of patients. Immunodiffusion and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays were validated reliable for kras peptide monitoring. There were no other deleterious and/or serious side effects in our study group, and no death occurred. The duration of antibodies production lasted a month after completion of vaccination.
There have been few significant advances for the treatment of colorectal cancer since it was last assessed in 2005. Ongoing efforts to further develop personalized treatments based on the individual patient's characteristics continue to be one of the key priorities for the treatment of colorectal cancer.
Patients with localized cancers and with curative potential should be considered for randomized trials. Patients with distant metastases should be considered only for trials examining clinical benefits for those who are asymptomatic.
Results from a recent paper suggest that, in addition to its antitumor effect, the Kras peptide vaccine also exerts potent chemopreventive effects on colorectal preneoplastic hyperplastic nodules.
There is a high percentage of colorectal cancer diagnosed in individuals with an affected first-degree relative. When an index case of colorectal cancer presents to an emergency room, it may be worthwhile to consider whether the patient exhibits a strong familial predisposition toward colorectal cancer in addition to some typical suspicion factors of colorectal cancer such as smoking, obesity, hyperhomocysteinemia etc. It may be prudent to consider a thorough pedigree review in the interest of preventing the passage of colorectal cancer.