Approximately 3.7 million US adults are diagnosed with Glioblastoma in 2018 and 2.2 million will die of this disease. Despite this, research is underrepresented in the literature and there is a lot of gap in our knowledge. I propose to implement an official, comprehensive national program of health surveillance of brain cancer.
Given the vast knowledge of molecular mechanisms behind the initiation and progression of glioblastoma, the following medications and therapies may be utilized to treat the disease. (1) Topoisomerase II inhibitors, (2) Epidermal growth factor receptor antagonists, (3) Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors, (4) Angiogenesis blockers, (5) Microtubule stabilizers, and (6) Targeted gene therapy.
The signs of glioblastoma include motor and visual changes, brainstem dysfunction, seizures, and other types of changes to the whole brain that occur after about 1 month following diagnosis of the glioblastoma. The brain can seem to become a ‘slow-motion movie’ after this early 'dance'. Other signs may occur depending on which part of the brain is affected. Although they do not always occur at the same time, some of the early signs of disease can indicate brain stem issues that may lead to a decreased ability to breathe quickly enough to sustain life. A new set of signs, which are not yet well understood, include abnormal smells or sounds, or difficulty feeling.
This report provides compelling evidence that the survival of children diagnosed with glioblastoma is improved by intensive, multimodal chemotherapy and that the standard treatment for primary pediatric brain tumors - maximal resection followed by radiotherapy plus radiochemotherapy - can result in durable disease-free survival. We conclude that there exists a high likelihood that GBM can be cured and that a cure for this disease is achievable in the near future.
The etiology of glioblastoma may be a complex result of the accumulation of minor environmental or genetic damages which alter cell fates in neural cells. We discuss the implication of a multi-factorial etiology of glioblastoma.
The observed frequency of peptides employed in conjunction with other chemotherapy regimens in recent glioblastoma trials does not support the use of peptides in this setting.
The average age is 62.7, with a 1.6-month standard deviation. It is slightly higher than the expected average of 61 for cancer overall. However, the true variability is higher than previously thought.
Based on these studies, peptides represent a strong candidate for targeted therapy of GBM. Indeed, they are well tolerated by patients and are able to bind tumor epitopes preferentially. Clinical trials in GBM are feasible.
There was a growing trend of research towards personalized therapy after the first decade of this century. The new data on targeted biological therapy, immune-oncology and immunotherapy could open up interesting new approaches in treating glioblastoma. In addition, the development of novel therapeutic agents, such as the epothilone derivative 5-aminolevulinic acid, could lead to more effective and selective therapeutic approaches to glioblastoma.
There has been a substantial body of work demonstrating the clinical activity of certain peptides in the treatment of various types of human malignancies. It is now time to test the most promising of these treatments in larger, comprehensive clinical studies.
Vaccination against peptides may show benefits in long-term protection against glioblastoma multiforme. We discuss the possible use of a vaccine targeting the LN-1A component as well as the potential mechanisms of action of vaccine-induced immune responses.