Tennis elbow can respond to splinting with a combination of conservative treatment (e.g. rest, elevation, and compression) and manual therapy (e.g. heat and ice) with variable success rates using no conservative treatment. Additional studies examining these therapies are warranted.
There is no cure for tennis elbow. Exercise of some degree of repetitive use may reduce symptoms, but a large degree of repetitive use does not.
The pathogenesis of tennis elbow and golfer's elbow is similar and likely the result of repetitive microtrauma which causes fatigue and muscle denervation. There is evidence for the development of tenosynovitis (inflammation of a tendon sheath) which may lead to the development of tendinitis. It is unknown how a causative link exists between this pathological process and pain, which may therefore represent an inappropriate response.
Tennis elbow is a disorder of the proximal humeral collateral ligament that presents with pain and stiffness most often in the elbow, wrist and forearm. It usually strikes tennis and squash players in their mid 30s. Tennis elbow is more than likely to occur when tennis players develop a rapid, repetitive wrist extension while playing squash or tennis. Treatment for tennis elbow is variable depending on the cause. There are several different explanations for tennis elbow, but a combination of the repetitive wrist extension, local hyperaesthesia (numbness) and peripheral neuropathy suggests that the compression of some nerve (or nerve roots) is happening. There is however no single definitive treatment yet and most doctors are unable to provide a correct diagnosis and advice for tennis elbow.
Tennis elbow is common: in this study, 24.7% of participants reported tennis elbow symptoms at some point in their lives. Tennis elbow may affect boys and girls of all ages, and is common among men and women.
Tennis elbow can be diagnosed before major signs occur and treated with a high percentage of patients being back in sports and activity in 3 months. This would have a tremendous impact on return to competitive tennis.
No evidence was found to support the claims that WBFRT is effective in reducing discomfort or improving outcome from the tennis shoulder. Based on our experience using WBFRT, this treatment does not appear to be a useful tool for reducing injury to the shoulder.
Tennis elbow has been shown to affect up to 8% of amateur tennis players, but it can be prevented by practicing proper technique. Most tennis players will be free of pain or discomfort after a period of rest. However, tennis elbow is a chronic condition in which a tennis player should seek medical consultation. Treatment options for tennis elbow may include medication or physical therapy. Tennis elbow has not been listed as a permanent injury category by the United States Tennis Association (USTA), but an injury may be incurred if the use of a tennis racket or any strokes improperly applied could potentially cause pain for the player. tennis elbow or tennis arm is not always seen as a serious issue because most tennis players will experience the condition less than 2 years.
There might be some degree of pain, irritation and hematoma at the application site that may require more time for healing. For beginners and those who want to avoid a prolonged tourniquet, it is advisable to use the tourniquet for short periods and move towards a more experienced person before using it for prolonged sessions with a longer tourniquet and a more painful application site.
Tennis elbow is not a rare condition. At least one review has estimated the incidence of tennis elbow in symptomatic individuals at 1 per 10 000 per year or about 40 per 1000 in the general population. However, this estimate did not appear consistent with our own data. Studies have found that roughly one-third of players with tennis elbow do not improve with proper treatment and that about half of patients do not respond to medication. Results from a recent paper suggest that tennis elbow should be considered one of the most common tennis-related conditions. Although tennis elbow is not a rare condition, it may be underrecognized. Studies and treatments may overestimate what is seen in the population as a whole.
Although evidence to support or refute the use of medication to prevent tennis elbow is poor, more prospective, well-designed studies of medication for treating tennis elbow are needed.
Tourniquet application decreases the elbow extension torque and velocity, while knee flexion torque, velocity and range of motion remain constant at 5 minutes in a resting forearm position, and therefore the blood flow restriction is less effective during exercise. Application of the tourniquet did not cause pain.