This trial is evaluating whether Speaking after viewing pictures with negative and neutral valence will improve 4 primary outcomes and 4 secondary outcomes in patients with Stammering. Measurement will happen over the course of through study completion, an average of 3 weeks.
This trial requires 50 total participants across 1 different treatment group
This trial involves a single treatment. Speaking After Viewing Pictures With Negative And Neutral Valence is the primary treatment being studied. Participants will all receive the same treatment. There is no placebo group. The treatments being tested are not being studied for commercial purposes.
"There is substantial variation in the prevalence of stammering in men in the United States. This variation appears to be most common in younger age groups and is also highest in blacks and Hispanics." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"Stuttering is mainly a speech disorder and can have several causes, predominantly due to neurological problems. A neurological cause is more likely in younger children where the onset is a result of brain damage. This damage could be due to illness, or head injury or could be inherited from parental genes. Other possible (infrequently) causes of stammering are: a tongue-tie (when the tongue stops speaking at the back of the mouth); the tongue-tie having been cut when being taught to read (this is a relatively common occurrence as a child's tongue is not securely fastened at this time). Hearing problems, a brain problem, or poor mouth muscle or positioning can also cause stammering." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"Stammering is an involuntary but debilitating speech disorder in which the articulation of speech sounds is impaired. One of the first steps in developing stammering treatments is to identify the characteristics of stammering and treatment techniques that improve speech fluency in stammering patients." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"The symptoms of stammering include delayed speech onset as well as non-verbal language difficulties. Other signs of stammering include difficulty in gaining attention and speaking with the crowd.\n" - Anonymous Online Contributor
"Despite the high percentage of children experiencing stammering, the therapies used by these children differ considerably from those used for speech disorders in adults because stammering is a less severe speech disorder. Although there is no cure for stammering, it is possible to treat this disorder through a number of different intervention methods." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"This report shows that stammering can be successfully treated by a speech pathologist. In a recent study, findings were durable and provided a high degree of satisfaction." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"Although the parents did not complain about stammering, stammering can be seen as a symptom of the disorder. The current results do not support the assumption of a genetic link between stammering and speech impairments. These negative results were confirmed by the absence of stammering in family members with stammering symptomatology." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"Clinical trials are becoming more prevalent in the field of speaking therapy, however the research and methodologies are not well-developed. Recommendations from the present study could help pave the way to developing more robust, empirical, and systematic approaches to clinical research." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"Contrary to expectations, this study was unable to replicate previous findings of increased physiological responses during speech as a consequence of viewing pictures or pictures and sounds. The present findings do not support the recommendation of "avoid looking at pictures of negative and neutral valence" during speech. Although these results should be considered with caution due to the small sample size and the use of self-reported pictures for stimulus presentation, they indicate that the findings of the present study did not reflect the original results." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"Stammering can have multiple causes. A thorough history and the evaluation of all associated symptoms is important. The primary underlying cause most often is [psychological factors].[mental_health disorders] and/or [medical_advice] of a doctor. Often the doctor will recommend [somatic_management] and/or [medical_therapies] for the stammering." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"Contrary to expectation on the basis of the motivational interference hypothesis, the present results do not support the notion that speaking after negative-only pictures are more difficult to achieve than after neutral pictures. However, they do not contradict the notion that positive-only pictures interfere with successful spoken production, at least not in reading." - Anonymous Online Contributor
"This survey provides guidance on relevant clinicians. Patients with stammering, particularly those who are at risk to be enrolled in a clinical trial, should actively seek help before considering a clinical trial." - Anonymous Online Contributor