The effect of sleep on mood and quality of life is underestimated. This is because, in general, subjects spend long hours on the sofa in daytime, watching TV, or playing video games. Inadequate sleep in many individuals, especially those who prefer to sleep only in the evening and sleep in the early hours, creates sleep debt. The most affected periods tend to be during the weekend and at night. In order to reduce sleep debt, individuals should reduce or avoid consumption of mind-altering drugs such as amphetamines, caffeine, alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, or others. The latter consumption usually brings with it negative impacts on sleep debt and quality of sleep.
At least half of current U.S. citizens report some debt to sleep, and one out of five says he/she owes more than 2 hours per night on sleep debt.
Participants with sleep debt had impaired motor speed, cognitive control and gyrification. These deficits are related to an increase in sleep debt and an impact on health. Sleep debt is correlated with sleep deficit duration and circadian rhythm disorders, which may be more common in those affected with sleep debt.
Sleep debt can be alleviated by a varied treatment approach including non-pharmaceutical measures, as well as medications to deal with sleep problems. Many people believe that a short power-nap during the day is beneficial for sleep; however, this study found that this technique is ineffective. There is great research interest in the effects of sleep duration on mood, cognition and other functions, particularly with regard to sleep debt. Thus, non-pharmaceutical treatments are recommended to sleep debt sufferers. Further, the use of bedtime products can be useful in reducing sleep debt; however, people who use the products do not use them regularly.
Sleep debt can consist of excessive hours of sleep without adequate total amount of REM sleep. Sleep debt can be difficult to discern based on a typical sleep act, as in most sleep debt scenarios, sleep debt is likely occurring during sleep in non-restorative sleep cycles like delta sleep and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep). The signs of sleep debt include depressed mood and reduced concentration after a prolonged period of sleep deprivation, as well as excessive daytime sleepiness and irritability. It is important to note that the symptoms of sleep debt are not the same as the effects of sleep deprivation on the brain or memory and cognition.
The most likely cause of daytime sleepiness is fatigue, which results from lack or disinhibition of REM sleep. Sleep debt has a role to play in the development of other psychiatric conditions, as part of a complex causal pathway that runs from behavioural problems such as impulsivity, aggression, ADHD and substance misuse to sleep debt, which, in turn, has a range of associated psychiatric conditions including psychopathology and cognitive disturbances.
Subjective sleep quality, as measured by the PSQI, and sleep debt, as measured by the EDS, are positively and independently associated with daytime symptoms of fatigue, depression, and joint pain. Achieving sleep quality and sleep debt of good quality may help reduce symptoms in multiple domains.
The information presented here will be useful for both medical professionals and research scientists. Additionally, Sleep Deficiency in the Healthcare Industry will be an area of interest to those in the field of nursing who are caring for chronically ill patients. Sleep deprivation in the healthcare environment is a challenge to be overcome to provide the level of care that patients expect and need.
Sleep deprivation is usually used in combination with additional treatments for sleep related complaints during the treatment of insomnia. Therefore, future trials should specifically report the type of treatments that are used in combination with sleep deprivation and the treatment schedule as well as any potential differences in patient outcomes when comparing this information with treatment for insomnia without sleep deprivation. The conclusions of this paper are applicable to both chronic fatigue syndrome and insomnia.
Findings from a recent study suggest that primary sleep debt is due to sleep loss in a specific sleep period that lasts less than 6 hr. Findings from a recent study suggest the primary cause of sleep debt is sleep deprivation outside of the daytime hours, which is the typical sleep period.
The majority of participants did not consider the financial considerations they might face in receiving clinical trial enrollment and a small number of participants also perceived that they were excluded from clinical trials due to 'no longer having access to funds after enrolling in clinical trials' The fact that many felt financially marginalized by clinical trials suggested that they were likely candidates for clinical trial enrollment, particularly considering their experiences with their own diseases. Many patients are advised to consider their financial situation and the possibility of clinical trial enrollment prior to participating in clinical trials, however, our results support that some patients do not follow through with such advice. Although only a small percentage of participants did not consider their current financial situation to dictate clinical trial enrollment, there is not a uniform financial screening process.