This trial is evaluating whether Treatment will improve 1 primary outcome and 1 secondary outcome in patients with Waterborne Diseases. Measurement will happen over the course of 12 months.
This trial requires 908 total participants across 2 different treatment groups
This trial involves 2 different treatments. Treatment is the primary treatment being studied. Participants will all receive the same treatment. Some patients will receive a placebo treatment. The treatments being tested are in Phase 3 and have had some early promising results.
Infectious diseases can have a wide range of possible symptoms. These depend on the location of the infection and the type of immune reaction. Symptoms may include headaches, fevers, feeling tired, joint aches, muscle and joint pain, and diarrhea.
This article discusses the various waterborne diseases and outbreaks and a common problem with water pollution. The waterborne diseases which may be encountered include salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, cholera, listeriosis, cryptosporidiosis, and hepatitis A, A/E viruses, and typhoid. This article also discusses the problems of water pollution.
Waterborne diseases are caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites and human and animal viruses that are spread via body-borne or airborne means. According to the CDC, the vast majority of waterborne diseases are human or animal origin. The remaining diseases are caused by environmental sources, such as climate change, poor water quality, and contaminated food or soil.\n
Results from a recent clinical trial, we have found that there are approximately 1.7 million cases of waterborne disease annually in the US and that there are approximately 19,000 cases per year in Maryland alone.
The most common solution to gastrointestinal pathogens and diarrhea are basic oral rehydration therapies, to which medications such as antibiotics may be added. Preventing waterborne illnesses requires more than basic handwashing behaviors, with specific interventions, including safe drinking water for the most susceptible populations. This article is protected under US copyright. All rights reserved.
This is an empirical study. We have not run any experiments to demonstrate how to cure waterborne diseases. We could not come to the conclusion that it is impossible to heal waterborne diseases. Any cure will have to be an empirical cure. In our view, it is not possible to cure such infectious diseases as hepatitis, leprosy, kala-azar, and malaria by pharmacologic or medical means. A cure may come through a vaccine, and there is ongoing research in this direction, but a vaccine for hepatitis is yet not available, and there is no cure.
Evidence suggests that [interventions are less effective or just have very low probability of proving their effect. However, some treatments have been proven to be more effective than a placebo. We [treatments (A|B)] were able to find clinical trials for [many [diseases]] where [interventions had been proven to be more effective than a placebo]. The [evidence-based practice of caring for patients with chronic conditions in our health professionals]] is [not] effective...[and/or] is [still] [not] proven effective, [yet] [treating them like patients with acute illnesses].
When patients are being treated, they are treated for waterborne illnesses, such as bacterial infections or viral illnesses that are caused by water—including waterborne diseases. One issue is that in the U.S., there are more than 300 million [cases of waterborne illnesses per year]; it is difficult to remember that many more people are being treated than usual for waterborne illnesses. To help recall all of them, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) created a graphic on its Web site depicting various waterborne illnesses such as [dengue fever] [Ebola virus], [Norovirus] (which causes gastroenteritis), and [cholera] (which most often causes diarrhea).
Among study participants aged 18 to 54 years, the proportion was lowest among men ages 20 to 29 years, followed by men ages 30 to 44 years; women ages 20 to 24 and 30 to 34 years had significantly higher rates of infection than men and women ages 18 to 19 years in other age groups.
There was a trend that more effective antibiotic antibiotics, such as those for typhoid, were being given to those in our study who had a less severe presentation of the disease. This was more common in the winter months and occurred in both urban and rural areas. However, only one-third of patients had their causative organism recorded; therefore, the actual effects of antibiotic therapy are probably worse than the results of our study would suggest. For example, those patients who have no signs of typhoid (so they were not given antibiotics) may develop more severe disease if it does occur. Overall, the results of our study do not illustrate a clear, direct link between antibiotic prescribing and patient outcome.
The most commonly identified primary cause of waterborne diseases over the entire study period was the ingestion of raw or undercooked animal meats and poultry. Additionally, the major source of diarrhea was ingestion of food from polluted waterways or untreated water. To prevent outbreaks, local and national governments must provide people with access to reliable drinking water and should enforce proper sanitation practices, including using sanitary water sources.
The information on the use of other treatments with DST was incomplete. We recommend that more treatment studies on the use of DST be conducted, especially for the treatments of other non-HIV-type STDs.