This trial is evaluating whether Pembrolizumab will improve 1 primary outcome in patients with Cancer. Measurement will happen over the course of From randomization to the development of histologically confirmed oral cancer or death of any cause, whichever occurs first, assessed up to 7 years.
This trial requires 15 total participants across 2 different treatment groups
This trial involves 2 different treatments. Pembrolizumab is the primary treatment being studied. Participants will all receive the same treatment. There is no placebo group. The treatments being tested are in Phase 2 and have already been tested with other people.
Between 1.4 and 1.8 million people are diagnosed with an invasive cancer every year in the United States. This is in addition to an unknown number of invasive cancers that are detected, but do not result in a diagnosis. The public health importance of these numbers is uncertain.
Genetic predisposition and lifestyle factors are very closely tied to the development of many cancers. But it can be hard to tell what is an environmental and what is a hereditary cause, because these types of risk factors often co-exist. While genetic predisposition to cancer is widely accepted, environmental risk factors cannot be eliminated and can even be an important element in disease onset.\n
The word cancer is often used as an insult meaning "uncommon illness." This should be discouraged, because it promotes an inadequate perception of risk. The word cancer can also be used as an end in itself, implying the illness is an affliction, rather than merely an unwanted sign or symptom of disease. On this basis, the word cancer is actually the most appropriate in modern English.
If cancer is curable, then there is no such thing as death from cancer. For those afflicted with the disease, one would have to be very ill to die from cancer; yet, even in cases of very long illness, the death usually occurs from something unrelated to cancer. The term "cure", if used in this sense, must be construed as ‘curing’ the state of cancer, so that a human being can say he or she is cured of cancer, which does not mean that the cancer (of which the human being is no longer aware) has, in every sense, been cured of being cancer. Thus, it is meaningless and even misleading to say that cancer has been cured.
Cancers frequently result in symptoms that are painful, bulky, and may involve the entire body. Cancer often presents with swelling and/or redness at the site of the tumor. Some cancer, such as breast cancer, may have symptoms that involve the skin.\n
The advances in science from a genetic and molecular level to clinical settings for understanding of tumor development are tremendous and are ongoing. The development of new technologies and new therapies for the treatment and improvement of cancer is also progressing from preclinical discoveries through Phase I trials to larger randomized studies and finally to clinical trials to show the benefit of these therapies. It is crucial to acknowledge and remember that the first successful new cancer drug is often years after its discovery in preclinical models, because drug development is an expensive and slow process, and many new drugs are never commercialized.
Over the lifetime of a person, they appear to develop various cancers at different average ages. The most frequent cancers that are likely to be seen over a person's lifetime are non-melanoma skin cancer, endometrial cancer, lung cancer and stomach cancer. These are not necessarily in the most common demographic groups which is the age range of the average Australian aged 45-69
The safety profile is comparable to other IMs. The most frequent adverse events were fatigue and infusion reactions, whereas most common discontinuations were related to infusion reactions. Only 1.7% of patients experienced cardiac complications, whereas all patients experienced serious infusion reactions.
The incidence of side effects was moderate to severe. The most common side effects were fatigue, diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, dizziness, decreased appetite and muscle/muscle damage.
Cancers seem to often run in families with an increased chances of siblings developing the disease. The causes of this relationship remain unknown. It has been reported that a few familial cancers have been observed, this includes ovarian and breast cancers. Individuals with familial cancers often show an earlier age at onset of illness. Families are also at an increased risk for having cases of multiple cancers with an increased number of cancers per individual compared to the general population. These relationships between familial cancer and early onset of cancer suggest a possible genetic link in oncogenesis.
The survival rate for a person who has cancer is not the same for every cancer. The survival rates depend on gender, age of the patient, the type of cancer, and other factors. But there is a general pattern that cancer has a higher survival rate when the patient is between the ages of 0‑14 yr old. More importantly, the survival rates for cancer is always significantly higher than the survival rates for other diseases. The survival rates are the worst for the deadliest cancers. In the past decade, improvement in survival rates for cancer is much greater than it was for any other disease. The cancer mortality rates have declined significantly over the past three decades.