Plerixafor is used in cancer patients to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells. It may cause platelets to become unstable, leading to fatal bleeding complications in up to 0.005% of patients. In patients with lymphoma and/or HIV infection, plerixafor should not be used unless advised by a physician because these patient subgroups are at high-risk of serious adverse reactions. The safety and effectiveness of plerixafor in patients with anemia, kidney impairment, or liver impairment have not been established. Patients with a history of bleeding disorders should not take plerixafor. It could increase bleeding events if given in close, and painful, proximity to a potential traumatic stimulus.
Familial increased incidence of lymphopenia has been reported by several investigators, with an apparent autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, especially in women. As yet, no genetic factors have been identified. It remains to be established whether lymphopenia is a disorder of the hematopoietic system, or a consequence of hematological malignancies.
Plerixafor has been investigated in a limited number of clinical studies for patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell [transplant](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/transplant)ation for malignancies. These studies have examined its ability to improve hematopoietic stem cell engraftment, reduce overall relapse rate, and delay time to first leukopenia. Both single agent and combination clinical trials have produced mixed results. Additional randomized controlled trials of plerixafor are warranted for further evaluation.
There is currently no evidence that clinical trials are less effective in groups with a low rate of lymphopenia. There also appears to be no difference in outcomes between groups. Nevertheless, lymphopenia is a common clinical finding in most cancer settings and we would suggest that clinical trial eligibility for lymphopenia should be considered in all patients as we do in this setting.
There have not been any new findings for treating lymphopenia. Immunoglobulin supplements, vitamin B-100, and oral glutamine may have the advantage that they are inexpensive and easily incorporated and available for people who are unable to get enough food or medication from their meal. More studies need to be done to find a better treatment for lymphopenia.
[On average, the average lymphocyte count in healthy people is about 4.50 x 10/l (> 1 x 10 in this case will be written as 1 x 10). If there is a decrease in lymphocyte count below this number, it could be a problem because this group of white blood cells plays a very important role in protecting the body against infections, but if this continues and you fail to get your baseline lymphopenia corrected to normal level your body is missing an opportunity to ward off an infection.] [Power](http://www.withpower.
Signs of lymphopenia are: prolonged periods of cold and fever, low WBC and platelet counts, low lymphocyte counts, and low lymphocyte percentage. The duration of lymphopenia is variable, affecting relapse of disease.
Recent findings suggest that leukopenia does not necessarily require immunosupprasives to be cured. Recent findings might be of relevance for the treatment of solid tumors as well, since no evidence has previously been provided for their usefulness.
Lymphopenia is defined as a <2000 WBC count on the first of at least three consecutive days in an adult. It is common after the first chemotherapy treatment for cancer and can be associated with infections, disease progression, malignancy, treatment or diseases (e.g. HIV/AIDS). The prognostic significance of lymphopenia is unclear and is dependent upon the context/subtype of lymphopenia.
Recent findings found that HIV-positive patients have a high frequency of treatment for thymic dysfunction including immunologic, psychological, and social problems. This is especially true for those on HAART due to the high level of thymic dysfunction found in this population. The most common treatment for thymic dysfunction is thymic stimulating agents that are often administered alone or in combination with a second line of therapy that is generally more effective.
Most lymphopenia in the general population occurs in those younger than 40 or older than 70-80 years. A large number of lymphopenic patients are not enrolled in clinical trials. Lymphopenia will be under-diagnosed and undertreated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Immunoreglucopoiesis defects were not a major cause of lymphopenia in the patients with iatrogenic lymphopenia in this study; and defects in antibody class switching were suggested as a cause for the lymphopenia in our patients.