With the appropriate surgical treatment including gross total removal of the tumor and adequate margins, high local tumor control can be achieved and may be helpful for long-lasting survival for patients with myxoid chondrosarcomas.
Myxoid chondrosarcoma accounts for less than 5% of all cancers of the skeletal system. We report 4 cases of myxoid chondrosarcoma of bone. In a recent study, findings highlights the need to educate surgeons and the general population regarding myxoid chondrosarcoma.
The specific cause of myxoid chondrosarcoma remains unknown, but these tumors are known to occur most frequently in young males with local lesions or tumors and often in the extremities/extrascapular regions. Clinicians should remember the association of myxoid chondrosarcoma and chondrostereum (also called "osteochondrosis"). Myxoid chondrosarcoma is most often associated with myxochectomy or exostosis of an epiphyseal zone. This benign lesion often occurs in adolescent males from the ages of 10 to 16 years. Patients with this disease may also present with a tumor.
Myxoid chondrosarcoma is a rare intraosseous neoplasm with a distinctive gross appearance. The histology, biochemistry, and immunohistochemistry of this tumor are also unique. It is usually a slow growing tumor with an early recurrence rate in less than one year. Surgery was the sole therapy and has been the recommended treatment for most cases of this tumor. A well-defined concept for classification needs to be developed because there are variations of this tumor. The exact etiopathogenesis of myxoid chondrosarcoma is not yet identified.
Myxoid chondrosarcoma may present with mass effect of tumors, and may involve the liver, peritoneum and/or heart. Although myxoid chondrosarcoma usually has a good prognosis, the diagnosis may become more challenging in a highly aggressive primary tumor involving the joint. These tumors may have a peculiar pattern of cellular differentiation, with focal, irregular, bizarre nuclei containing many nucleoli, a nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio that is < or = 2, a pseudo-cleistosome arrangement, prominent heterochromatin, and large, rounded nucleoli; however, the clinical significance of this pattern is not yet established.
The treatment for both myxoid chondrosarcoma and benign chondromuscular tumors has been improved in recent years due to the development of new drugs, including radiation, hormonal, and chemotherapy therapies. Tumor types may respond to these treatments differently, depending on the location and stage of the disease prior to this treatment. Furthermore, the chemotherapy treatment remains an important adjunct of treatment for both malignant and benign tumors. Currently, no treatment for myxoid chondrosarcoma has been proven to be curative. Therefore, it is important to identify and treat patients with this disease as early as possible.
Patients with myxoid [chondrosarcoma](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/chondrosarcoma) are more likely to wish to participate in clinical trials than are other adult patients with bone sarcoma. They are less likely than patients from other regions to feel that the research was of interest when compared with patients of other regions. When asked who would want to participate in a clinical trial, most patients would name their spouse and/or family members. Patients from other regions were less likely than patients from other regions to see the clinical trial as interesting, or to see it as important. In general, patients who were aware of the trial did not feel a need to know more about it, but felt it benefited the society more for patients to know about clinical trials.
The 1-year and 5-year survival rates for patients with myxoid chondrosarcoma were 89% and 82%, respectively. Survival was significantly longer in females (p = 0.019), patients who had local treatment only (p = 0.0008), and patients with no residual tumor after resection (p < 0.01).
[No significant improvements have been made in the treatment of myxoid chondrosarcomas] at this time. The only way to make any improvement is to continue with the recent clinical trials and hopefully, a cure will be found.
The latest research on MFH is sparse. Clinical trials are under way to determine whether targeted therapy and radiation therapy are more effective treatments. Clinical trials of these therapies are ongoing. MFH cases are rare; the median number of observed cases is 27 (range 0–72) per 10,000 population/year.
Results from a recent paper, the first description of a multiplex case, indicates that myxoid chondrosarcomas are probably genetic in nature and are associated with a familial mode of transmission. A larger genetic study is thus needed to confirm or reject the presence of a genetic contribution to myxoid chondrosarcoma.
The most common common adverse effects of doxorubicin and carboplatin are the same; they include hair loss, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, nausea, and weakness. However, doxorubicin has also been reported causing other side effects such as aplastic anemia during treatment, myelosuppression including neutropenia, gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea, bleeding, ulcerations, hemorrhage, perforations, ulcerations, and bleeding as well as cardiovascular problems such as [congestive heart failure](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/congestive-heart-failure), low blood pressure, increased risk of valvular disease, and low output heart failure.