There have only been few phase II and phase III clinical trials using FSHR as a drug target. However, since the advent of rifn-co, there have been some positive results for it as a monotherapy. In our opinion, it is now more likely that FSHR and rifn-co could be combined with the use of FSHR agonists in a new treatment strategy for patients with endocrine tumors.
Many different genetic, environmental and epigenetic changes occur simultaneously in many of NSECs during their tumorigenesis. The underlying cellular determinants for disease formation in a specific tumor remain unresolved, making the underlying mechanisms important for establishing the optimal approaches to targeted treatments.
About 11 million people at some point in a year have at least one primary neuroendocrine tumor. These people are more likely to experience aggressive tumor behavior.
Most NETs are characterized by diarrhea, diarrhea with blood, excessive flushing or pallor, and/or weight loss. In contrast, some patients with NET have signs such as osteomalacia, acromegaly, or hypercalcemia. In patients with NET, bone lesions such as osteomas, fibrous dysplasia, and osteolytic areas should be sought.
Neuroendocrine tumors are neoplasms that arise outside of the usual sites of cellular differentiation and include tumors of all kinds of hormones and peptides, including hormones, antigens, and growth factors. They arise from cells of different origins in the body and are typically classified according to their cell of origin. The diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors requires a thorough anatomical, medical, and medical-pathological investigation to exclude other possible tumor diagnoses. The initial management is often surgical. If there is limited or no evidence of a mass or other anatomic abnormality, it should be followed closely for the development of metastasis.
NE tumors are highly malignant, but with appropriate treatment in selected patients, they have a potential cure in many cases. For example, low-grade, limited-stage, well-differentiated (well-differentiated, limited-stage, well-differentiated, and low Ki67 proliferative index), low-grade, well-differentiated, limited-stage, pancreatic-type, and low proliferative index neuroendocrine tumors with either local or distant relapse were cured or had a long survival. NE tumors without distant metastasis were cured or had a long survival when limited to local relapse.
Most patients with NEN respond well to treatment with either surgery, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, or chemoimmunotherapy. However, patients with unresectable or progressive disease at presentation are almost always treated with palliative intent only.
Neuroendocrine tumors, like most other types of tumors, have a 10-year overall survival rate of 25-30% depending on the type of tumor. The strongest prognostic indicator of outcome is performance status (function of the patient and how they think they should act) at time of neuroendocrine tumor diagnosis.
There are no new exciting treatments for PNETs. In patients with high-grade PNET, chemotherapy with a biologic agent can be considered. In low-grade PNETs, if the disease is very low in volume and high in the organs, a biologic agent may be useful. For patients with high-grade PNETs and metastatic disease, chemotherapy can still be considered. If there are no symptoms, a biologic agent is not needed. Patients with low-grade tumors should begin chemotherapy with a biologic agent after other therapies have failed.
Patients with MEN I have a 50% risk of developing at least a NET, while patients with an MEN IIA are 20% to 30% at risk. A more aggressive surveillance is required for patients who have MEN II. The presence of multiple NETs, but not the location of the first tumor in the body, predicts the risk of developing additional NETs.
Recent findings did not demonstrate that administering an RSF-co improves patients' QOL. However, our study supports the importance of QOL assessments and supports its inclusion in future clinical trials.
Rare, but potentially life-threatening, neuroendocrine tumors can be serious. Patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors present with nonbiliary symptoms. Patients with somatostatin analog therapy present with progressive hepatic failure, renal tubular dysfunction, and progressive gastrointestinal dysfunction. Patients with malignant tumors may present with cardiopulmonary symptoms or, more commonly, pulmonary symptoms. Patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma commonly present with dysphagia. These tumors, like neuroendocrine tumors, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with nonbiliary symptoms.