This trial is evaluating whether Post-amphetamine [C-11]NPA PET Scan will improve 1 primary outcome in patients with Disease. Measurement will happen over the course of Baseline, and 2.5 to 3 hours post-amphetamine.
This trial requires 30 total participants across 2 different treatment groups
This trial involves 2 different treatments. Post-amphetamine [C-11]NPA PET Scan is the primary treatment being studied. Participants will all receive the same treatment. There is no placebo group. The treatments being tested are in Phase < 1 and are in the first stage of evaluation with people.
Most patients are not willing to participate in clinical trials and doctors often feel responsible for their patients' decisions. Physicians should be aware of the importance of patients' understanding of the risks and benefits of clinical trials and make an honest assessment of their willingness to consider enrollment, particularly in light of evolving evidence that participation in clinical trials may be associated with decreased survival.
The addition of this treatment has the potential to enhance the tumour effects in a small subset of people, as indicated by a post-amphetamine PET scan performed with only a low number of scans. This should be considered in patients with unresectable disease requiring a PET as a therapeutic tool.
[C- 11]NPA PET is a well-established method to scan for dopamine receptors after administration of the drug. We did see no evidence of positive or negative effects of (c-11)NPA on catecholamine turnover to c-NPA in the brain or on the behavioral effects of (c-11)NPA. Additional investigation is required to determine whether (c-11)NPA PET is a useful diagnostic tool before undertaking surgery for Pheochromocytoma.
(Not to be interpreted as meaning the opposite of curable):<br>\nDisease cannot be cured. The cure rate for most diseases is approximately 10% or lower. Examples of diseases for which cure rates of 10% to 50% have been reported are bacterial and viral infections, and HIV disease. Most diseases of unknown cause have cure rates of approximately 10% to 50%. <br>\nFurthermore, disease severity cannot be reduced to a point where cure is possible. For example, Alzheimer disease cannot be cured in the strictest sense, although some clinical trials to treat the disease have been successful and there is a large body of evidence that current disease treatments are useful.
Every society has its own definition of disease. Here, disease is treated as an objective biological phenomenon with specific biological etiologies. If the disease is identified before death, the biological etiology will have been demonstrated. If it is identified after death, the existence of the disease must be assumed, and further investigation is not included in this definition.
The most common treatment plan for diseases may include lifestyle modification to lessen symptoms, medication to treat symptoms, or surgery. There is no single most widely used treatment for disease because different disease circumstances are best treated with different treatment plans and treatment will be dictated by patient variables. Many conditions are very hard to treat and may require a combination of different treatment options before a full recovery occurs. The patient will always be the best guide in which treatment plan to follow.
About 4.7 million people in the US live a year with an acute illness—4.3 million new diagnoses and 1.4 million exacerbations. Nearly 1 out of 5 people who are hospitalized for an acute illness have been diagnosed with two or more chronic medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, or arthritis. Diabetes had the highest number of cases with 1.4 million people, while asthma and arthritis had the lowest number of cases at 0.9 million and 0.9 million people, respectively. Most of the people who have been hospitalized for an acute illness have been diagnosed with more than one chronic condition. Those who also have asthma are at particularly high risk. Many chronic conditions that a patient has may also affect their health care use.
Many diseases of children and adults are not known to be determined by genetic predisposition as well as other environmental factors and must be seen in a holistic way.
Although the [c-11]npa PET scan seems to be a sensitive diagnostic modality, the use of amphetamine may result in increased [C]npa activity in some patients. This effect is more pronounced if administered orally rather than by injection, and hence this effect may represent a potential diagnostic dilemma. We consider that [C]npa PET scanning can be used carefully in patients with history of amphetamine use.
Most commonly reported primary cause is autoimmune disease (62%), followed by infection (21%), and then neoplastic (16%). The majority of primary and secondary diagnoses were made on the basis of a diagnosis made by a physician, but in a few cases, the diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical examination and/or laboratory tests. Although many physicians were aware of the etiology of the disease, the study found that most reported it in primary correspondence with the reported primary cause. The physicians in the study were relatively well-trained and most used a standard set of diagnostic procedures.
PET imaging with [c-11]npa provides insight into biochemical mechanism(s) of acute drug effects, with potential to serve as a non-invasive functional imaging tool for the study of psychotropic drug action on the neuromodulator system.