Americans With Disabilities Act

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) protects the rights of people with disabilities. ADA ensures that individuals with disabilities get equal employment opportunities, access to public accommodations, non-discrimination based on their condition, and more. The primary purpose of the ADA is to provide equal rights and opportunities for every individual. Therefore, this law holds much importance in the country. 

Individuals with disabilities are considered different from others because of their medical conditions. But they also have the right to live with all the facilities and services like every citizen.

What Are The 5 Areas The ADA Covers?

The Americans with Disabilities Act targets five areas to promote equality of people and workers with disabilities. They are as follows- 

  • Employment: The ADA is formed to provide equal employment opportunities to everyone, including people with disabilities. They can apply at any company or industry according to the requirements and eligibility criteria. The employers must opt for those accommodations that are reasonable for them. 

The employment area in ADA also restricts discrimination against individuals with disabilities. They will get all the necessary medical 

examinations in specific conditions.  

  • Public services: Public services should be available for every citizen to use. There should not be any restrictions for people with disabilities regarding their use, according to this title. A disabled person doesn't need to hesitate while using any service provided by the government. All the rights related to this are protected under this title. 
  • Public Accommodations: It is the second area on which ADA focuses. Public accommodations include hotels, restaurants, schools, hospitals, stadiums, cinemas, and more. According to this title, people with disabilities have access to all these places and should not be discriminated against based on their disability. 

Public places should offer individuals with disabilities all the facilities they need. For instance, some people are unable to walk on stairs. So, assistive technology like wheelchair ramps is crucial to develop. As a result, it will help them eliminate the challenges they face every day. 

  • Telecommunications: Telecommunications is necessary for connecting people through mobile phones. Individuals with disabilities have access to these services without any terms and conditions. No company can stop them from using telecommunications as this title protects them. 

Special facilities are given to people with hearing and speech disabilities in this sector. They don't have to struggle when connecting with family members or friends. 

  • Miscellaneous conditions: This area includes prohibiting any illegal activities against disabled individuals. These include threatening them for certain things, unlawful use of drugs, and more. Apart from that, this title also shares some conditions to consider before identifying a disability. 

What Are Examples Of Reasonable Accommodations?

Reasonable accommodation refers to a modification in the hiring procedure, work, or environment to the requirements of a person with a disability. Thus, there won't be any discrimination against them, and they will enjoy equal employment opportunities. 

Reasonable accommodations are essential for some people with disabilities. It depends on their condition whether a particular one is helpful to them or not. Here are some examples of reasonable accommodations through which people can get benefits. 

  • Job restructuring: Job restructuring refers to reassigning any business task that an individual with a disability can not complete. It includes all the compromises an employer 
  • Change in work schedules: Another example of reasonable accommodation is changing the work schedules according to the requirements of a disabled employer. They have to visit the clinics to get their treatment from time to time. So, they have to work by keeping their medical schedules in their mind. The organization can help them by providing suitable work timings. 
  • Installation of better equipment and tools: People with disabilities cannot work with specific tools and equipment. Their needs are different because of their condition. That is why businesses now install better tools that make their working experience excellent. For instance, an adjustable desk will be a perfect thing for people who cannot move to reach the computer easily. 
  • Suitable training materials: Training employees is a crucial thing to do to grow a company. Individuals with disabilities find it a bit challenging to complete the training in one go. So, they need some video or reading content materials for the same. Companies provide them to individuals with disabilities, an example of reasonable accommodation. 
  • Adding assistive services and products: Assistive technology aims to help individuals with disabilities with products that make their tasks more convenient. Businesses add these products and services for their benefit. 
  • Shifting a worker to a vacant job position: A reasonable accommodation also includes changing a disabled person's position to a vacant one. It happens when they cannot perform some tasks due to their condition. However, in this situation, only incumbent employees can get this facility. 

What Are Examples Of ADA Violations?

The Americans with Disabilities Act protects the rights of disabled workers and people. There are some violations that everyone has to consider to avoid any legal action. Examples of ADA violations are-

  • Unavailability of a wheelchair ramp in a public place
  • Unavailability of handrails on staircases
  • Not constructing a separate restroom for people with disabilities in a public place, parking areas, and more. 
  • Charging an additional fee from disabled individuals for accommodation in a public area
  • Unavailability of communication services for disabled people
  • Constructing staircases that are not suitable for a person with a disability 
  • Poor escalator and elevator services 
  • Not hiring a disabled person for a job because of their medical condition

What Is Covered Under the Americans with Disabilities Act?

The Americans with Disabilities Act covers all the disabilities that restrict a person from doing everyday tasks like walking, hearing, sitting, speaking, and more. In other words, people with mental and physical impairment are included in this category. This act provides equal job opportunities and rights to disabled people like others. As a result, it helps uplift those who need support and care. 

Physical and mental impairment

A physical impairment refers to a disability or disorder that affects a person's physical condition. The physical impairment can occur in any part of the following systems-

  • Neurological 
  • Digestive 
  • Respiratory 
  • Musculoskeletal 
  • Reproductive 
  • Hemic 
  • Lymphatic 
  • Skin 
  • Cardiovascular 
  • Sense organs 
  • Genitourinary 

According to ADA, mental impairment is a disability or disorder that impacts an individual's mental condition. All the disabilities in this category are related to mental problems. Some of them are-

  • Mental retardation 
  • Organic brain syndrome 
  • Learning disabilities 
  • Emotional and mental illness 

This Act also provides some examples, such as muscular dystrophy, visual impairments, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, HIV infection, drug addiction, diabetes, heart disease, orthopedic impairments, speech and hearing impairments, and diabetes. 

What Disability Is Not Covered By The ADA? 

The Americans with Disabilities Act only considers a person's disability if the condition is included in the list. Not all mental and physical disabilities are eligible for the benefits. A few cases of mental health illnesses, like depression, stress, etc., are considered a disability by the ADA. 

People with severe health problems like cancer, multiple sclerosis, long-term impairments, and more are not on the list. So, the Americans with Disabilities Act won't consider them eligible for the rights and facilities. 

People should always read the terms and conditions of the act carefully to proceed with any action. A detailed understanding is necessary to provide advantages to those in need. 


The Americans with Disabilities Act is regarded as one of the most significant laws for protecting the rights of disabled people. They also need immense support from the government and higher authorities to become self-determined and improve their lives. This act shields against the discrimination that an individual with a disability faces.