Around 275,000 cases of [breast cancer](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/breast-cancer) are diagnosed each year in the US, making it the second most common cancer in American women. Gender of the patient does not influence the prognosis, as the chance of the cancer recurs is similar in men and women.
Nodes near the breast, nipple, or axilla might be palpated or feel lumpy, hard or tender to the touch. Women with breast cancer may also have lump or bump behind the armpit or groin and may have white patches or sores on their skin. Skin that does not appear normal can have redness, scaling, itching and rash. The size and shape of the breast can be seen by inspection and may vary by tumor type. Women with breast cancer may have changes in sensation, especially numbness, tingling, swelling or loss of sensation in the breasts.\n
The majority of women with breast cancer are treated to some degree; the use of chemotherapy may be higher for younger women. Rarely are patients treated with mastectomy; however, this may be advisable if their only option is a mastectomy.
Patients can live longer than people diagnosed with other cancers, although the disease has a tendency to recur. It is a malignant disease, although many of the symptoms are less specific than typical cancer symptoms. Because of the number of women diagnosed, the lifetime risk is higher than any other cancer. Breast cancer affects more women than any other cancer. The disease is strongly associated with hormonal factors. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach, which generally includes surgery and chemotherapy, but the use of antiestrogens and trastuzumab in the neoadjuvant setting is also expanding. Treatment is expensive, but not, in most cases, completely effective, so relapse remains inevitable.
Although the majority of patients with stage 4 breast cancer do not survive to 5 years after diagnosis, some patients with stage 0-3 can be cured with adequate chemotherapy. These patients can sometimes become completely asymptomatic and have a long-term prognosis without further treatment.
Atezolizumab effectively blocks PD-1 and is the first antibody therapy that specifically inhibits PD-1. In clinical trials, patients treated with atezolizumab were shown to have an increase in survival as well as an increase in progression-free survival. Atezolizumab was shown to be well-tolerated and had activity against several types of breast cancer.
Atezolizumab improves progression-free survival in metastatic breast cancer in patients with HER2-positive or HER2-gene-amplified tumors. Clinical benefits of atezolizumab were greater in patients with tumors that overexpress a high HER2/neu level or that overexpress the hormone receptors. No meaningful difference was observed in those with tumors that only express a high HER2/neu level or those with tumors that have low levels of the receptor.
Patients with metastatic breast cancer who have progressed on or after platinum and taxane-based chemotherapy have a shorter median time to progression after atezolizumab treatment compared with patients treated with conventional therapies. In contrast, patients who respond to chemotherapy at the time of progression have longer progression-free survivals than patients treated with atezolizumab. The atezolizumab-based combination in this setting may help to prolong progression-free survival and prolong overall survival in patients who have progressed on their first-line treatment.
Atezolizumab as a monotherapy is active in patients with metastatic tumors and shows promise as a second- or third-line immunotherapy. However, the majority of patients with a response to atezolizumab will have progressive disease that was previously under-treated or untreated.
Overall, we observed no significant difference in response rate or progression-free survival between atezolizumab and controls. We also observed no difference in response rate or time to progression between the two groups in patients who achieved partial response or stable disease.