Most cases were caused by external irradiation and, rarely, by occupational exposure to carcinogenic materials. A plausible biological mechanism is ionizing radiation and external carcinogens that cause genomic damage in neural progenitors.
Significant gains in QoL are associated with successful performance of ASA testing. The patient with pre-existing medical comorbidities had a significant advantage in QoL outcomes achieved by the intervention of ASA testing.
The signs of head neoplasms are headache, nausea and vomiting with loss of appetite as the most commonly reported symptoms. The neurological symptoms are the most frequently reported in children in particular. The signs of intracranial masses are headache, vomiting and neck pain as the most common symptom reported and, in particular, in children below 5 years. Imaging techniques such as CT, MRI of the brain may be helpful in diagnosing certain forms of brain tumours and are especially helpful in diagnosing and classifying central nervous system neoplasms as benign or malignant in the pediatric age group.
Treatment options, including surgery and/or radiotherapy, show many positive impacts on the patients quality of life, and can cure around 70% of patients with benign or low malignant brain lesions.
Approximately 1.5 million Americans are diagnosed with a head neoplasm each year. The overall annual prevalence of head and neck cancer is 4.85 per 1000 men and 2.8 per 1000 women in the United States.
Head neoplasms is the mass that forms in the head due to cells proliferation inside the brain, causing headache. The vast majority of those neoplasms are gliomas. Gliomas contain different kind of cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons) and different types of tumors (well-differentiated or anaplastic gliomas, glioblastoma, multispecific gliomas). Also the tumor form itself (solid, nodular and pseudopapillary shapes) can be seen. In most cases it is treated by surgery and chemotherapy with or without radiation.
OSA is extremely common (15% in men and 20% in women) in this population (outpatients at a tertiary care surgical referral center). Our clinical algorithm led to high diagnostic yield of OSA with acceptable rates of PSG-related complications. The most important variables for OSA detection were male gender, low body mass index, and prolonged stay in the ED.
Head and neck cancer carries a poor prognosis if the tumor invades the bones or the sinuses. When the tumor invades the brain, the prognosis becomes even worse. Tumors located on the cheek, ear, and tongue show longer survival rates when they do not involve these areas. Laryngeal or pharyngeal cancers are in a worse situation as they can extend into the mouth, neck, and pharynx, which will affect the function of these organs. Survival for patients who will have tracheostomy is worse because the cancer may cause obstruction of the airway. The type of surgery used to treat the neoplasm should be chosen so that the most benefit for the patient can be obtained.
Head neoplasms are diagnosed at a younger age when compared to other tumors in the body. The average age of a male with a head neoplasm is 40 whereas it is 48 for a female. While there is a positive relationship between the number of CT scans taken and the number of brain tumors to be diagnosed, the age of the first CT scan was not statistically significant. Because these results were obtained while maintaining strict clinical and radiographic guidelines to the study, the reliability of the study may have been compromised.
The prognosis of head neoplasms depends on the size, type, and stage of cancer as well as the age of the patient. The survival rate decreases when the size of the tumour increases. In the first three years, the survival tends to be good, but in the later years it decreases.
Patients undergoing OSA testing are often undiagnosed because there is ambiguity in interpreting the results. The OSA test may yield useful information in some patients.