The primary risk factor for [prostate cancer](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/prostate-cancer) is aging. Genetic factors and environmental exposures, particularly smoking, may also contribute to an increased risk for the disease. The genetic defect can be in any one of three genes. In those carrying a particular allele, this is associated with an increased risk for cancer that is greater as they age. However, not all men with a particular allele have prostate cancer. In contrast, smoking is associated with an increased risk for prostate cancer. The relative risk of prostate cancer in one smoker relative to two non-smokers is approximately seven times that of two non-smokers relative to two of the same sex that was a smoker.
Results from a recent paper, about 1,000 men and 500 women were diagnosed with prostate cancer. As expected, prostate cancer most frequently occurred in whites and African Americans; Caucasians; men aged>60 years, and men who were diagnosed with the disease late in life. Prostate cancer was more common in urban than in rural areas; however prostate cancer can be diagnosed, and treated, outside of major cities.
As with any disease, the prognosis of prostate cancer can vary greatly based on the stage of the disease at diagnosis and from a patient's underlying health characteristics. At any given stage, different treatment options are available to patients including watchful waiting, active surveillance, surgery, radiation therapy and hormonal therapy. Additionally, patients with good general health can be offered options such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapies.
The incidence of stage 4 disease is rising, mostly due to improvements in screening. Because most men with stage 4 disease and good prognostic features can be cured with radical prostatectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy, radical prostatectomy remains the treatment of choice in most men. More than 98% of men with stage T1 disease are cured with adjuvant radiotherapy.
Prostate cancer is a disease that can affect one's ability to pass urine, have an erection, or in some cases, have swelling in the abdomen or pain in the groin. The American College of Physicians and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have estimated that more than 60,000 new cases will be diagnosed each year in the USA.\n
This is the first study to show reduced side effects of pre-test video education. We believe that our findings will contribute to the growing literature that demonstrates significant decreases in both positive and negative effects of video-based education. At the 5th International Symposium on Video-Laparoscopy for Diagnosis and Management of Colorectal Disease, the majority of attendees received video-based education through the Web-based Interactive Education Platform. This presentation is expected to provide a comprehensive overview of the use of video-based education in the field of colorectal disease.
Most men over 50 are diagnosed with prostate cancer after a biopsy diagnosis of BPH. Most men who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer based on their PSA level are unlikely to have prostate cancer. Thus, the PSA-based detection of prostate cancer in men without medical signs or symptoms should be based on a clinical context. More research into the optimum indications for and timing and frequency of biopsy to optimise its usefulness in prostate cancer screening is needed, especially in elderly men in whom prostate cancer is a low grade disease.
Clinical trials are often a way of making treatment decisions before a cancer has become symptomatic. For prostate cancer, only about half of patients may consider clinical trials. Men at least 60 years of age are most likely to consider them. This group will likely have a better survival time and a longer time off from symptomatic disease if treated. Aspects such as cost and potential adverse effects may influence their decision. Older men who are very distressed at the suggestion of having to submit to treatment may not wish to suffer from those side effects so they refuse. Findings from a recent study of our research suggest that older men may not want to risk losing the ability to take care of themselves.
Pre-test video instruction is a safe procedure for patients without a disability as long as they do not have to view the video at a computer screen or are unable to read. Video education is both practical and informative for a wide range of patients in outpatient clinics.
Results from a recent clinical trial demonstrate that the pre-test video education significantly improved self-care and sexual function compared with the informational intervention. Results from a recent clinical trial supports the effectiveness of pre-test video education in improving quality of life in men undergoing a course of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.
The introduction of an interactive video with standardized content for use in the pre-test setting is a useful adjunct for pre-test instruction that can significantly enhance the test-taking process in the pre-test setting.