Catheter-related infections are treated with the most effective treatment used for their etiology: empiric therapy for organisms known to be cultured from the catheter, and treatment of the catheter using appropriate antimicrobial agents for organisms isolated in blood cultures.
This report from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Panel of the US Department of Health and Human Services illustrates that infection is a major cause of adverse events associated with the use of PICCs in the United States. This information will help the PICC Center Consortium and the healthcare industry to develop prevention programs that aim to minimize infection risk and its adverse consequences, including the burden on healthcare resources and costs.
In this pilot study, no evidence of CRIs after 1 year of CVC placement was observed. Therefore, CRI rates after CVC placement appear to be low.
The following symptoms are related to catheter-related infections: discharge from the catheter, fever, chills, chills with sweating, chills without sweating and/or chills with nausea. There is not enough evidence to draw conclusions about the most common symptoms and causes.
These data provide a compelling argument for the introduction of an early catheter-insertion policy based on the recommendation of all the major national infection committees.
At present, interventions such as CVC change and CRI drainage can provide only short-term palliative care to patients with the catheter-related infection of choice and of a nonsevere etiology that is difficult to control with antibiotics. The catheter-related infection itself cannot be cured.
Extended dwell catheters have a rate of percutaneous intervention-related complications that is significantly lower than that of chronic dual-lumen catheters. A low rate of percutaneous intervention-related complications is observed even when the use of catheters for an extended period exceeds 3 weeks.
Although the incidence of catheter-related infections differs significantly among countries and regions, the incidence of catheter-related infections in hospitalized patients with a suspected urinary tract infection is similar in the United States, Great Britain, Spain, Canada, and Australia.
We will explore the recent literature on catheter infections and propose a framework. We will address our clinical experience in assessing catheter-related infections and summarize current treatments. We will share our insights on managing these infections and treatment complications. We emphasize the importance of education and the implementation of the Joint Commission's surgical core competencies.
The authors found only few cases when echocardiographic detection of thrombus emboli was possible. No cases were detected with echocardiography after an extended dwell time of 72 h. There seems to be no evidence for the formation of thrombus emboli over an extended dwell time.
Infections with long dwell catheters are rare. Although a low infection rate might be a desirable occurrence, the results of this study suggest that the incidence of serious infection from an extended dwell catheter may be lower than that reported in some studies in the literature. Even though the extended dwell catheter is considered a high-risk device requiring frequent monitoring, a very low, steady-state infection rate in this patient population may be safely maintained by vigilant patient and institutional education.
[Catheters with prolonged dwell times are safe and effective in children <2 years of age and infants born extremely preterm (27+/-5 weeks of gestation)... The increased likelihood of catheter obstruction with prolonged use is outweighed by the benefits of catheter removal because of clot retention or obstruction.