Symptoms of coronary artery disease can be mistaken for other diseases or signs of aging. The best way to diagnose coronary artery disease is by using an electrocardiogram (ECG) with the help of a computer. A physician can then choose the right treatment plan to help them feel better. Once diagnosed, coronary artery disease is one of the few things that can be effectively treated. One way to treat coronary artery disease is by using lipid-lowering medications such as statins. Statins are very effective at lower doses than needed for the treatment of high blood cholesterol, which is often found in coronary artery disease. At higher doses, statins can cause muscle pain and tenderness if the person is inactive and not exercising regularly.
At age 76, one-third of subjects with a history of angiodysplasia have no evidence of plaques or of stenosis, and half have only minimal burden of disease. However, a history of angiodysplasia is strongly associated with more than a quarter of subjects with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. Results from a recent clinical trial are consistent with a 'biological hypothesis' that the angiodysplastic plaques may be 'benign' in some subjects.
In the UK in 2014, there were 12,6,000 new cases of CAD. The most recent data, that of the English National Health Service (NHS), show that the number of new cases of CAD in England had a five-fold increase from 2002 to 2015 – from 13,000 a year in 2002 to 79,000 in 2015. The increase was almost totally attributable to rises in women with CAD (from 36,000 in 2002 to 100,000 in 2015). Diabetes was the major concurrent risk factor for both men and women (28% and 24%).
About 22.3 million Americans will have a myocardial infarction in 2006. The total numbers of patients with coronary stenosis or coronary revascularization and patients with symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease from all ages are about 35.9 million. It is unclear to what extent this "silent disease" remains asymptomatic for the elderly patient.
The treatment of coronary artery disease is complex and depends not just on the disease's etiology, but also on the physical characteristics of the patient such as age and medical history. There is no cure for coronary artery disease, and treatment is focussed on symptom relief and preventing complications. There is not enough evidence here to establish whether medication or medical therapy is better for most patients. The medications recommended are often prescribed in high dosages, which can lead to undesirable side-effects. There is no evidence that aspirin used to prevent clots, although this treatment is commonly suggested.
The coronary artery disease may have multiple risk factors, including age, genetics, physical inactivity, stress, smoking, and elevated levels of blood pressure – especially low-dose exposure to radiation from nuclear explosions. The cause of coronary artery disease appears to be the first step, perhaps from a complex interaction among biological, social and environmental factors.
The therapeutic effects of PCI were similar to those of CABG. In conclusion, PCI has advantages as a safe and efficient method of revascularization. It was a better method in patients with severe CAD than CABG, as well as in the treatment of patients with stable or unstable angina.
We found that, compared to those who received a letter from their physician, those who received an additional educational letter from their healthcare provider improved only on the short range: they reported better perceived health status when asked immediately after receiving the letter and 4 months later. If more rigorous studies with larger sample sizes validate this observation, it might be possible to implement clinical decision support systems aiming at increasing the detection and diagnosis of coronary artery disease.
Most GPs do not regularly notify patients of their cardiovascular disease risk, leading patients to delay diagnosis. A patient's cardiovascular disease risk may be underestimated and appropriate preventive measures not taken.
There has been some movement in informing patients about the use of the new drug before it is approved. There needs to be more cooperation by all stakeholders (e.g. medical associations, regulators) in order to reach consensus to improve patient safety in evaluating new drugs.
Patients with low Framingham scores and previous ACS should be prioritized for clinical trials testing revascularization strategies for CABG since these strategies can significantly reduce the long-term risk of death.
A high percentage of patients (40%) reported side effects after sending notification letters and receiving the letter and number of patients (41%) reported side effects postoperatively. Although the majority of side effects in this study were benign, they were statistically significant. There was no significant correlation between age and side effects.