Hypertension is a disease that has long-term implications and does not always respond to any medication. It is possible to reverse certain characteristics of the disease but this can only be achieved with early recognition and appropriate treatment.
Hypertension is common in a population and is closely associated with heart disease. In some patients, hypertension develops in tandem with atherosclerosis, although in others this association is not present, indicating a possible causative role for hypertension. We propose that certain environmental factors exacerbate preexisting cardiovascular disease which leads to an initial increase in blood pressure. Some of these factors may be genetically determined, while other factors, such as diet and physical inactivity, act to keep blood pressure high.
There are a number of treatment options for treating hypertension. In most cases, there is no clearly identifiable best treatment for hypertension because the benefits of one approach often outweigh the harms. Most of the available options are used to treat hypertension in combination, with different combinations recommended depending on patient characteristics and what is most useful for a particular patient (for example, oral for those on aspirin and statins, and intravenous for those on beta blockers). Many of the treatments, including lifestyle changes such as smoking cessation, weight management, medication and treatment for diabetes mellitus, also help reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke.
HbA1c is the most useful indicator of diabetes. Hypertension may cause a chronic decrease in the level of kidney functioning. There are many other signs of hypertension. It is important to check blood pressure repeatedly during a day’s life. A high blood pressure can be treated once it is seen.
Hypertension is a common condition characterized by high blood pressure. It has profound impacts, including coronary instability and strokes that cause significant morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly.
Hypertension can be very serious, especially among those with heart failure. Hypertension is a major risk factor for heart failure and stroke. Furthermore, if untreated, hypertension carries a mortality more nearly three times greater than that associated with diabetes. The risk of death associated with hypertension is similar and may be slightly lower than that associated with cardiovascular disease. Hypertension can lead to end organ damage and accelerated atherosclerotic progression, and may even increase the occurrence of sudden cardiac death.
Results from a recent paper of studies comparing low and high doses of a single drug are not comparable to other, similarly designed randomized clinical trials, because they are limited by problems relating to drug-resistance, adherence and compliance. However, it is clear that a high cardiovascular mortality in uncontrolled hypertensive patients is the result of a combination of the effects of the hypertension medication class and other elements of patient lifestyle and the environment.
A Cochrane Review for hypertension concluded that ACE inhibitors and beta blockers have been shown to be more effective when compared with a placebo and thus may be given preference as they are more effective than a single drug, in the long term. Similarly, ACE inhibitors and beta blockers remain effective for up to two years after they start. Their use may be more cost-effective compared with a placebo. It is possible that, once it is established that a certain anti-hypertensive treatment has been shown to be more effective than a placebo over a long period, that this will apply to other drug classes as well. Further trials investigating this are urgently needed. The authors' recommendation is that beta blockers and ACE inhibitors should be the initial treatment for most patients.
There has been plenty of progress in preventing heart disease but not enough progress in treating heart disease. This may partly be due to a lack of understanding of the disease and its progression but there are three main reasons that advances in treatment have been delayed: 1) a poor awareness and lack of knowledge of heart disease in health professionals; 2) a lack of enthusiasm in both health professionals and patients in the development of treatment for heart disease; and 3) the development of a slow and cumbersome method of translating data to practice (in other words using what we know about the disease it doesn't change what we do) in health professionals.
The majority of patients with hypertension were found to have a first degree relative with the disease. Furthermore, the severity and duration of the disease was found to be increased in first degree relatives of patients with hypertension when compared with the normal population.
Despite a large safety gradient, less than one in every four people taking ACEI-I/ARB are treated with drugs that are known to have a side effect that requires a cessation of therapy. The risk of the following drug-related side effects: angioedema, electrolyte imbalance, hyperglycemia/hypoglycemia, cough, edema, dyspepsia/nausea/vomiting and upper abdominal pain were lower in patients who took an ACEI-I/ARB compared with those taking other drug classes.