Brain cancer affects about 4 million people and deaths from the disease occur in about 2.3 million annually. A number of environmental and genetic factors may contribute to the development and aggressiveness of brain cancer. Tumour heterogeneity may be a significant factor in the development and growth of these tumours.
The most common cancer in the United Kingdom is low grade glioma which affects children and young adults. Most adults are affected by a brain tumor during their life. Most are men with an average age around 63 years old. Glioma is the eighth most common cause of cancer death in the United Kingdom. Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common form of high grade glioma and is thought to have a poor prognosis. Most patients with glioblastoma multiforme are 40-60 years old. The cancer is typically unilateral or bilaterally spread around the brain.
According to the American Cancer Society, a total of 10,500 people will be diagnosed with [brain cancer](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/brain-cancer) for the year 2019 in the United States.
The most common treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial tumors, or chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and surgery for extracranial tumors. Most brain tumours can be operated on. However, there are risks of death and side-effects of the operation. A small brain tumour can be dealt with by surgery but a large one is difficult. Complications can range from mild to life-threatening and they can occur at any stage of the cancer. There is also the risk of having the cancer come back after surgery. In some cases even if the tumour is surgically removed, it can come back.
Signs of brain cancer have a variable and nonspecific presentation. However, some signs may indicate the presence of a malignant lesion or malignant condition. Brain cancer is usually accompanied by the presence of symptoms.
Brain cancer is a serious prognosis with a wide range of different treatments including traditional therapies. A variety of approaches are used including surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and targeted therapies. Traditional therapy is often ineffective but novel therapies such as gene therapy may improve survival in some patients. There is a need for improved clinical trials to define better the role of adjuvant therapies in particular in newly diagnosed patients with newly diagnosed brain cancer.
Results from a recent clinical trial showed that a PI3K inhibitor (trebananib) had promising efficacy in HCC mouse models and suggested that combining with anticancer agent may be promising.
Tumours were seen as very small in size and were non-infiltrating with a small number of mitoses. A majority of tumours had no TTP1 amplification and no staining for TTP3 or VEGF. In summary, these data do not support the use of trebananib for the treatment of HGGs.
Most common were grade 1, including: low grade fever, headache, fatigue, fatigue-like illness, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and constipation. A few of the more severe-looking ones were grade 2 fever, anorexia, insomnia, and paresthesia.
Trebananib is safe for use at a dose of 400 mg QD. There were no safety concerns, and no serious cases of drug-related events. Trebananib can thus be well-tolerated. Given this drug is expected to be effective, future trials should consider the use of lower doses.
At first, the brain cancer research for primary brain cancer and brain metastases in general was not found very useful for primary brain cancer. There is a big gap in the brain cancer cure research that has to be bridged as well as a need for a better and more thorough research.\n