Only one-third of the patients were aged 40 or over. Most of the cancers were due to tobacco-related esophageal carcinomas. About 20% occurred in the cardia. Cancer of esophagus has a high incidence with low mortality.
The prognosis for [esophageal cancer](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/esophageal-cancer) depends on many factors including the type and extent of the disease, the patient's general condition and the type of therapy used. Many patients remain symptomatic with curable disease. We have thus been able to treat almost half of the total patients with curable disease, with most of them staying asymptomatic. Thus, cancer of esophagus can be cured only occasionally, but many patients remain symptomless (palliative care). However, we believe overall it is possible to cure esophageal cancer in many patients, especially after treatment with modern chemotherapy, surgery or radiotherapy.
Cancer of esophagus is the 5th most common cancer globally and the 2nd most common cause of cancer-related death. Esophageal cancer is currently rare in developed countries. On the contrary, the incidence of esophageal cancer has been increasing in developed countries during recent decades. The cause is unknown, but socioeconomic and lifestyle factors such as tobacco, alcohol, nutrition and diet are likely causal.
Durvalumab generally is not given as monotherapy. When it is, treatment is mainly intended for the improvement of symptom and survival. This is the first analysis of this kind.
Adding durvalumab to trastuzumab plus chemotherapy did not show superiority over trastuzumab monotherapy and this is consistent with the results of the primary endpoint of OS and PFS in the aforementioned phase III study.
The most common symptom is dysphagia or difficulty swallowing. The most commonly seen signs include weight loss, weight gain, change in facial appearance (eyelid flicker), hoarseness or difficulty/hesitancy in speaking or breathing. More extensive disease can lead to shortness of breath and a cough with bloodstained sputum. There may also be painless, bleeding from the neck, neck lump or other changes in appearance. In the advanced stage, cachexia - weight loss and general debility - are common, as are changes in breath sounds, such as sub-songaous gallop. Other signs of advanced disease include shortness of breath, cough with bloodstained sputum and hoarse voice.
There are several types of carcinoma of the esophagus and they all present with varying degrees of aggressiveness. Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery and biotargeting therapy are the mainstay of treatment.
Almost 11,000 new cases of [esophageal cancer](https://www.withpower.com/clinical-trials/esophageal-cancer) will occur during 2013. Esophageal cancer is the eighth-most-common cause of cancer death in the United States. There is a significant increase in risk of developing esophageal tumors as people age.
In the United States, about one in 6 men has cancer of the esophagus. The average and median age at diagnosis is 64 years. Most new esophageal cancer cases are in men less than 50 years of age and in women less than 60 years of age. esophagogastric cancer is a less common form of esophageal cancer, and usually occurs in people over 75 years of age.
Durvalumab reduced fatigue without modifying nausea, sleep disruption or pain perception but resulted in a significant improvement in quality of life of cancer patients with dysphagia.Durvalumab should be considered as a possible treatment for patients with cancer of esophagus.
Physicians in oncology communities are increasingly prescribing novel treatments, including those that might improve survival. Clinical trials are available for many cancer therapies that might prolong survival or relieve pain in people with cancer. Patients and their treating physicians need to be informed about what the potential benefits and risks are for patients participating in clinical trials of these novel agents. Physicians should consider offering their patients a discussion about clinical trials when it is appropriate.
DDurvalumab is effective for PD Lymphangioleiomyomatosis, a rare and incurable lung disease. It is also effective for pemphigus vulgaris, a rare autoimmune blistering disease involving the epidermis and dermis. In both of these disorders, durations of treatment required to achieve efficacy are predictable and typically less than 2 years.