Patients with coronary disease have better recovery of functional ability and a lower risk of rehospitalisation by the 6th month. With appropriate medical management, cardiorespiratory fitness, functional capacity and quality of life are improved. Despite a tendency for re-hospitalisation on average after rehabilitation, this appears to be due to a patient's propensity for readmission rather than the nature of the exercise.
Signing people up for rehabilitation is an essential part of general practice. This is particularly important in primary care, where a proactive approach to preventive healthcare is most appropriate.
Cardiac rehabilitation is commonly offered to patients recovering from myocardial infarction to optimize clinical outcome, adherence to recommended heart exercise regimens, and the risk of future cardiac events.
For each of the five components, a low level of evidence was present. However, due to the significant amount of evidence presented, it is likely that all components of cardiac rehabilitation may have an important role in improving cardiovascular health. There is no clear evidence that exercise is more effective than education, or that education is more effective than exercise. However, further research is required to clarify whether specific education programmes are more effective than others and to ensure the effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation programmes for particular patients.
Despite widespread recommendations for cardiac rehabilitation, substantial under-utilization persists. Data from a recent study of this study suggest that referral of cardiac rehabilitation to the community practice setting may play a role in improving referral rates. Efforts to better understand how to reach those individuals with the poorest risk who are not necessarily eligible for a referral letter may be warranted.
Cardiac rehabilitation may be indicated for patients with coronary heart disease, in view of the long-term effects of exercise and improving the quality of life.
Participants in our trial received incentives, but no long-term problems of financial, social or psychological nature arose. The most common adverse event was excessive anxiety and this was only recorded in 4/95 of the participants. This was probably due to intensive training for subjects' safety. All subjects were given an informed consent sheet before the start of the trial, explaining why incentives could possibly be unsafe and that the sponsor does not endorse this study of incentives. A trial of short-term incentives could potentially be considered a safe and acceptable form of funding in clinical trials with an informed consent form.
Interventions for patients receiving cardiac rehabilitation were associated with improvements to physical, cognitive, and social components of HRQoL at follow-up and may be an important factor in determining adherence to rehabilitation. Interventions to improve HRQoL may have a measurable impact on improving adherence to rehabilitation in patients.
Clinical trials would provide the ultimate proof of their effectiveness and have cost-effectiveness advantages. Clinicians, healthcare professionals, and researchers should consider clinical trials of cardiac rehabilitation for older adults.
A combined method of incentive manipulation with a monetary component did not increase attendance in cardiac rehabilitation after MI, with either an increased time to referral after MI or an increased financial burden.
[Therapists who can demonstrate proof of therapeutic benefit when using clinical study data can be eligible for financial compensation by Medicare.] This might improve the efficiency and usefulness of clinical treatment trials. Clinicians might use the incentives to perform studies that are more likely to generate meaningful outcomes rather than [conduct studies that produce large, statistically powered trials that fail to produce statistically detectable treatment effects] in an era of diminishing research funding.
Financial incentives, as well as other non-financial incentives, are helpful to promote participation in cardiac rehabilitation. It is, however, important for clinical trials to account for incentives appropriately and to ensure that they are adequately powered for the study's objectives. Clinical Trial Registration ISRCTN71677983. A systematic review of cardiac rehabilitation clinical trials.